# Category Archives: 名词

## 贾尼别科夫定理/网球拍定理 Tennis racket theorem

The tennis racket theorem or intermediate axis theorem is a result in classical mechanics describing the movement of a rigid body with three distinct … Continue reading

## 德博拉数 Deborah number

The Deborah number (De) is a dimensionless number, often used in rheology to characterize the fluidity of materials under specific flow conditions. It … Continue reading

## 富比尼–施图迪度量 Fubini–Study metric

在数学中，富比尼–施图迪度量（Fubini–Study metric）是射影希尔伯特空间上一个凯勒度量。所谓射影希尔伯特空间即赋予了埃尔米特形式的复射影空间 CPn。这个度量最先由圭多·富比尼与爱德华·施图迪在1904年与1905年描述。 向量空间 Cn+1 上一个埃尔米特形式定义了 GL(n+1, … Continue reading

## 卡尔达肖夫指数 Kardashev scale

The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement based on the amount of energy it is able to use. The … Continue reading

## 哈勃–勒梅特定律 Hubble's law

Hubble's law, also known as the Hubble–Lemaître law or Lemaître's law, is the observation in physical cosmology that galaxies are moving away from Ear … Continue reading

## 碲化钼 Molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2)

Molybdenum(IV) telluride, molybdenum ditelluride or just molybdenum telluride is a compound of molybdenum and tellurium with formula MoTe2, correspond … Continue reading

## 康德拉季耶夫长波 Kondratiev wave

In economics, Kondratiev waves (also called supercycles, great surges, long waves, K-waves or the long economic cycle) are hypothesized cycle-like phe … Continue reading

## 群 Group

In mathematics, a group is a set and an operation that combines any two elements of the set to produce a third element of the set, in such a way that … Continue reading

## 梅尔曼–瓦格纳定理 Mermin–Wagner theorem

In quantum field theory and statistical mechanics, the Mermin–Wagner theorem (also known as Mermin–Wagner–Hohenberg theorem, Mermin–Wagner–Berezinskii … Continue reading

## 陈-西蒙斯理论 Chern–Simons theory

The Chern–Simons theory is a 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory of Schwarz type developed by Edward Witten. It was discovered first by mat … Continue reading

## 碲化铋 Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3)

Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is a gray powder that is a compound of bismuth and tellurium also known as bismuth(III) telluride. It is a semiconductor, w … Continue reading

## 凯尔迪什方程 Keldysh formalism

In non-equilibrium physics, the Keldysh formalism is a general framework for describing the quantum mechanical evolution of a system in a non-equilibr … Continue reading

## 集合论 Set theory

Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any … Continue reading

## 坡印廷向量/能流密度矢量 Poynting vector

In physics, the Poynting vector (or Umov–Poynting vector) represents the directional energy flux (the energy transfer per unit area per unit time) or … Continue reading

## 闪锌矿 Sphalerite (zinc blende, ZnS)

Sphalerite is a sulfide mineral with the chemical formula (Zn,Fe)S. It is the most important ore of zinc. Sphalerite is found in a variety of deposit … Continue reading

## 精细结构常数 Fine-structure constant

In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted by α (the Greek letter alpha), is a fundamental physica … Continue reading

## 公开密钥加密 Public-key cryptography (非对称式密码学 Asymmetric cryptography)

Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is a cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys. Each pair consists of a public key (which may … Continue reading

## 密码学 Cryptography

Cryptography, or cryptology, is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of adversarial behavior. More generally, … Continue reading

## 拉普拉斯方程 Laplace's equation

In mathematics and physics, Laplace's equation is a second-order partial differential equation named after Pierre-Simon Laplace, who first studied its … Continue reading

## 泊松方程 Poisson's equation

Poisson's equation is an elliptic partial differential equation of broad utility in theoretical physics. For example, the solution to Poisson's equati … Continue reading

## 谢尔宾斯基地毯 Sierpiński carpet

The Sierpiński carpet is a plane fractal first described by Wacław Sierpiński in 1916. The carpet is a generalization of the Cantor set to two dimensi … Continue reading

## 近邻效应 Proximity effect

A given material can be transformed through proximity effects whereby it acquires properties of its neighbors, for example, becoming superconducting, … Continue reading

## 瓦尼尔函数 Wannier function

The Wannier functions are a complete set of orthogonal functions used in solid-state physics. They were introduced by Gregory Wannier in 1937. Wannier … Continue reading

## 散列函数/哈希函数 Hash function

A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to fixed-size values. The values returned by a hash function are called … Continue reading

## 宏观经济学 Macroeconomics

Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" + economics) is a branch of economics dealing with performance, structure, behavior, and … Continue reading

## 微观经济学 Microeconomics

Microeconomics is a branch of mainstream economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of … Continue reading

## 秀尔算法 Shor's algorithm

Shor's algorithm is a quantum computer algorithm for finding the prime factors of an integer. It was developed in 1994 by the American mathematician P … Continue reading

## 格罗弗算法 Grover's algorithm

In quantum computing, Grover's algorithm, also known as the quantum search algorithm, refers to a quantum algorithm for unstructured search that finds … Continue reading

## 混沌理论 Chaos theory

Chaos theory is an interdisciplinary scientific theory and branch of mathematics focused on underlying patterns and deterministic laws, of dynamical s … Continue reading

## 砷化镉 Cadmium arsenide (Cd3As2)

Cadmium arsenide (Cd3As2) is an inorganic semimetal in the II-V family. It exhibits the Nernst effect. 参考资料： https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadmium_ars … Continue reading

## 砷化镓 Gallium arsenide (GaAs)

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a III-V direct band gap semiconductor with a zinc blende crystal structure. Gallium arsenide is used in the manufacture of … Continue reading

## 线性缀加平面波法 Linearized augmented-plane-wave method

The linearized augmented-plane-wave method (LAPW) is an implementation of Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) adapted to periodic materials. It … Continue reading

## 哈斯勒化合物 Heusler compound (X2YZ)

Heusler compounds are magnetic intermetallics with face-centered cubic crystal structure and a composition of XYZ (half-Heuslers) or X2YZ (full-Heusle … Continue reading

## 拉莫尔进动 Larmor precession

In physics, Larmor precession (named after Joseph Larmor) is the precession of the magnetic moment of an object about an external magnetic field. The … Continue reading

## 分形 Fractal

In mathematics, fractal is a term used to describe geometric shapes containing detailed structure at arbitrarily small scales, usually having a fracta … Continue reading

## 激子极化激元 Exciton-polariton

In physics the Exciton–polariton is a type of polariton; a hybrid light and matter quasiparticle arising from the strong coupling of the electromagnet … Continue reading

## 格罗斯–皮塔耶夫斯基方程 Gross–Pitaevskii equation

The Gross–Pitaevskii equation (GPE, named after Eugene P. Gross and Lev Petrovich Pitaevskii) describes the ground state of a quantum system of identi … Continue reading

## 氮化硼 Boron nitride (BN)

Boron nitride is a thermally and chemically resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen with the chemical formula BN. It exists in various cry … Continue reading

## 过渡金属硫族化物单层 Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers

Transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD or TMDC) monolayers are atomically thin semiconductors of the type MX2, with M a transition-metal atom (Mo, W, et … Continue reading

## 石墨烯 Graphene

Graphene (/ˈɡræfiːn/) is an allotrope of carbon consisting of a single layer of atoms arranged in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice nanostructure. T … Continue reading

## 路径积分表述 Path integral formulation

The path integral formulation is a description in quantum mechanics that generalizes the action principle of classical mechanics. It replaces the clas … Continue reading

## 卷积 Convolution

In mathematics (in particular, functional analysis), convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions (f and g) that produces a third function … Continue reading

## Wyckoff位置 Wyckoff Positions

In crystallography, a Wyckoff position is a point belonging to a set of points for which site symmetry groups are conjugate subgroups of the space gro … Continue reading

## 赫巴德模型 Hubbard model

The Hubbard model is an approximate model used, especially in solid-state physics, to describe the transition between conducting and insulating system … Continue reading

## 爱因斯坦-布里渊-克勒方法/EBK方法 Einstein–Brillouin–Keller method

The Einstein–Brillouin–Keller method (EBK) is a semiclassical method (named after Albert Einstein, Léon Brillouin, and Joseph B. Keller) used to compu … Continue reading

## 扫描隧道显微镜 Scanning tunneling microscope

A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a type of microscope used for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. Its development in 1981 earned its invent … Continue reading

## 玻戈留玻夫变换 Bogoliubov transformation

In theoretical physics, the Bogoliubov transformation, also known as the Bogoliubov–Valatin transformation, was independently developed in 1958 by Nik … Continue reading

## 狄拉克方程 Dirac equation

In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928. In its free form, or includin … Continue reading

## 安德烈夫反射 Andreev reflection

Andreev reflection (AR), named after the Russian physicist Alexander F. Andreev, is a type of particle scattering which occurs at interfaces between a … Continue reading

## 杨-巴克斯特方程 Yang–Baxter equation

In physics, the Yang–Baxter equation (or star–triangle relation) is a consistency equation which was first introduced in the field of statistical mech … Continue reading

## 量子计算机 Quantum computing

Quantum computing is a type of computation that harnesses the collective properties of quantum states, such as superposition, interference, and entang … Continue reading

## 古斯－汉欣位移 Goos–Hänchen shift

The Goos–Hänchen effect (named after Hermann Fritz Gustav Goos (1883 – 1968) and Hilda Hänchen (1919 – 2013) is an optical phenomenon in which linearl … Continue reading

## 拉比周期 Rabi cycle

In physics, the Rabi cycle (or Rabi flop) is the cyclic behaviour of a two-level quantum system in the presence of an oscillatory driving field. A gre … Continue reading

## AC效应 Aharonov–Casher effect

The Aharonov–Casher effect is a quantum mechanical phenomenon predicted in 1984 by Yakir Aharonov and Aharon Casher, in which a traveling magnetic dip … Continue reading

## 阿哈罗诺夫－玻姆效应/AB 效应 Aharonov–Bohm effect

The Aharonov–Bohm effect, sometimes called the Ehrenberg–Siday–Aharonov–Bohm effect, is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which an electrically charg … Continue reading

## SQL

SQL (/ˌɛsˌkjuːˈɛl/ (listen) S-Q-L, /ˈsiːkwəl/ "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for … Continue reading

## PHP

PHP is a general-purpose scripting language geared toward web development It was originally created by Danish-Canadian programmer Rasmus Lerdorf in 19 … Continue reading

## C++

C++ (/ˌsiːˌplʌsˈplʌs/) is a general-purpose programming language created by Danish computer scientist Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C progr … Continue reading

## JavaScript

JavaScript (/ˈdʒɑːvəskrɪpt/), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language that is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web, alongside HT … Continue reading

## Bash

Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell. First released … Continue reading

## C

C (/ˈsiː/, as in the letter c) is a general-purpose computer programming language. It was created in the 1970s by Dennis Ritchie, and remains very wid … Continue reading

## Julia

Julia is a high-level, high-performance, dynamic programming language. While it is a general-purpose language and can be used to write any application … Continue reading

## Fortran

Fortran (/ˈfɔːrtræn/; formerly FORTRAN) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computatio … Continue reading

## Java

Java is a high-level, class-based, object-oriented programming language that is designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is … Continue reading

## Python

Python is a high-level, interpreted, general-purpose programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability with the use of significa … Continue reading

## K·p微扰论 k·p perturbation theory

In solid-state physics, the k·p perturbation theory is an approximated semi-empirical approach for calculating the band structure (particularly effect … Continue reading

## 卡西米尔效应 Casimir effect

In quantum field theory, the Casimir effect is a physical force acting on the macroscopic boundaries of a confined space which arises from the quantum … Continue reading

## 反对称交换作用 Antisymmetric exchange (Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction, DMI)

In Physics, antisymmetric exchange, also known as the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI), is a contribution to the total magnetic exchange intera … Continue reading

## 斯格明子 Skyrmion

In particle theory, the skyrmion (/ˈskɜːrmi.ɒn/) is a topologically stable field configuration of a certain class of non-linear sigma models. It was o … Continue reading

## 抗磁性 Diamagnetism

Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, … Continue reading

## 顺磁性 Paramagnetism

Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby some materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced m … Continue reading

## 亚铁磁性 Ferrimagnetism

A ferrimagnetic material is a material that has populations of atoms with opposing magnetic moments, as in antiferromagnetism. For ferrimagnetic mater … Continue reading

## 铁磁性 Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets. In physics, sever … Continue reading

## 密度泛函理论 Density functional theory

Density-functional theory (DFT) is a computational quantum mechanical modelling method used in physics, chemistry and materials science to investigate … Continue reading

## 哈特里－福克方法 Hartree–Fock method

In computational physics and chemistry, the Hartree–Fock (HF) method is a method of approximation for the determination of the wave function and the e … Continue reading

## 电子关联 Electronic correlation

Electronic correlation is the interaction between electrons in the electronic structure of a quantum system. The correlation energy is a measure of ho … Continue reading

## 交换作用 Exchange interaction

In chemistry and physics, the exchange interaction (with an exchange energy and exchange term) is a quantum mechanical effect that only occurs between … Continue reading

## 费曼图 Feynman diagram

In theoretical physics, a Feynman diagram is a pictorial representation of the mathematical expressions describing the behavior and interaction of sub … Continue reading

## 斯塔克效应 Stark effect

The Stark effect is the shifting and splitting of spectral lines of atoms and molecules due to the presence of an external electric field. It is the e … Continue reading

## 塞曼效应 Zeeman effect

The Zeeman effect (/ˈzeɪmən/) is the effect of splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is … Continue reading

## Dresselhaus效应 Dresselhaus effect

The Dresselhaus effect is a phenomenon in solid-state physics in which spin–orbit interaction causes energy bands to split. It is usually present in c … Continue reading

## Rashba效应 Rashba effect

The Rashba effect, also called Bychkov–Rashba effect, is a momentum-dependent splitting of spin bands in bulk crystals and low-dimensional condensed m … Continue reading

## 弱局域化 Weak localization

Weak localization is a physical effect which occurs in disordered electronic systems at very low temperatures. The effect manifests itself as a positi … Continue reading

## 安德森局域化 Anderson localization

In condensed matter physics, Anderson localization (also known as strong localization) is the absence of diffusion of waves in a disordered medium. Th … Continue reading

## 量子震荡 Quantum oscillations

In condensed matter physics, Quantum oscillations describes a series of related experimental techniques used to map the Fermi surface of a metal in th … Continue reading

## 角分辨光电子能谱 Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is an experimental technique used in condensed matter physics to probe the allowed energies and mome … Continue reading

## 几何相位 Geometric phase

In classical and quantum mechanics, geometric phase is a phase difference acquired over the course of a cycle, when a system is subjected to cyclic ad … Continue reading

## 贝里联络和贝里曲率 Berry connection and curvature

In physics, Berry connection and Berry curvature are related concepts which can be viewed, respectively, as a local gauge potential and gauge field as … Continue reading

## 近藤效应 Kondo effect

In physics, the Kondo effect describes the scattering of conduction electrons in a metal due to magnetic impurities, resulting in a characteristic cha … Continue reading

## 自旋-轨道作用 Spin–orbit interaction

In quantum physics, the spin–orbit interaction (also called spin–orbit effect or spin–orbit coupling) is a relativistic interaction of a particle's sp … Continue reading

## 任意子 Anyon

In physics, an anyon is a type of quasiparticle that occurs only in two-dimensional systems, with properties much less restricted than the two kinds o … Continue reading

## 薛定谔方程 Schrödinger equation

The Schrödinger equation is a linear partial differential equation that governs the wave function of a quantum-mechanical system. It is a key result i … Continue reading

## 朗道-利夫希兹方程 Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation

In physics, the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation, named for Lev Landau, Evgeny Lifshitz, and T. L. Gilbert, is a name used for a differential equation … Continue reading

## 马约拉纳费米子 Majorana fermion

A Majorana fermion (/maɪəˈrɑːnə ˈfɛərmiːɒn/), also referred to as a Majorana particle, is a fermion that is its own antiparticle. They were hypothesis … Continue reading

## 莫特绝缘体 Mott insulator

Mott insulators are a class of materials that are expected to conduct electricity according to conventional band theories, but turn out to be insulato … Continue reading

## 激子 Exciton

An exciton is a bound state of an electron and an electron hole which are attracted to each other by the electrostatic Coulomb force. It is an electri … Continue reading

## 磁振子 Magnon

A magnon is a quasiparticle, a collective excitation of the electrons' spin structure in a crystal lattice. In the equivalent wave picture of quantum … Continue reading

## 极子 Polaron

A polaron is a quasiparticle used in condensed matter physics to understand the interactions between electrons and atoms in a solid material. The pola … Continue reading

## 电磁极化子/极化激元 Polariton

In physics, polaritons /pəˈlærɪtɒnz, poʊ-/ are quasiparticles resulting from strong coupling of electromagnetic waves with an electric or magnetic dip … Continue reading

## 凝聚态物理学 Condensed matter physics

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter, especially the solid a … Continue reading