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精细结构常数 Fine-structure constant

In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted by α (the Greek letter alpha), is a fundamental physical constant which quantifies the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles. It is a dimensionless quantity related to the elementary charge e, which denotes the strength of the coupling of an elementary charged particle with the electromagnetic field, by the formula 4πε_{0}ħcα = e^{2}. As a dimensionless quantity, its numerical value, approximately 0.0072973525 or 1/137.036, is independent of the system of units used.

The constant was named by Arnold Sommerfeld, who introduced it in 1916 when extending the Bohr model of the atom. α quantifies the gap in the fine structure of the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom, which had been measured precisely by Michelson and Morley in 1887.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fine-structure_constant

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/精细结构常数

https://baike.baidu.com/item/精细结构常数/4135506

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