The Wannier functions are a complete set of orthogonal functions used in solid-state physics. They were introduced by Gregory Wannier in 1937. Wannier functions are the localized molecular orbitals of crystalline systems.
The Wannier functions for different lattice sites in a crystal are orthogonal, allowing a convenient basis for the expansion of electron states in certain regimes. Wannier functions have found widespread use, for example, in the analysis of binding forces acting on electrons; the existence of exponentially localized Wannier functions in insulators was proved in 2006. Specifically, these functions are also used in the analysis of excitons and condensed Rydberg matter.